Cruise Industry & Travel Experts Available for Comment on U.S. Supreme Court Case, Spector V. Norwegian Cruise Line

ARLINGTON, Va., Feb. 25 /PRNewswire/ — The International Council of Cruise Lines (ICCL) announces the availability of cruise industry and travel experts to comment on the U.S. Supreme Court’s February 28 oral argument in Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line (No. 03-1388), a case to determine the applicability of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to foreign-flagged cruise ships.

In filing its Brief of Amicus Curiae, the ICCL examined the myriad of international laws and regulations that apply to the international shipping industry and discussed the legal presumption against extraterritorial application of U.S. laws.

Of the more than 100 foreign cruise ships visiting North America annually, some routinely embark passengers in U.S. ports, other do so occasionally, and several only rarely schedule U.S.-based voyages. The ships vary in size, age, nation of construction and registry. Most are designed, built, classed, certified and flagged abroad. All are subject to a stringent and complex array of international shipbuilding and operational laws.

Nowhere in Title III of the ADA did Congress state or imply that the statutory scheme was meant to be applied extraterritorially, to foreign facilities that visit the United States or are visited by American citizens. The legislative history is likewise devoid of any such intent or discussion. Absent an expression of Congress’ intent, ignoring the well-established presumption against extraterritorial application of U.S. laws under these complex circumstances is unprecedented.

The cruise industry’s responsiveness in providing equal, integrated access to all its guests has generated a substantial and growing percentage of those traveling with special needs. This is an important group of travelers to the international cruise industry, and requirements for accessibility should be harmonized with international laws regarding safety and access. Extending the reach of the ADA to other nations and usurping their laws could potentially create legal barriers to travel.

Experts include:

* J. Michael Crye, President, International Council of Cruise Lines,
Arlington, VA 703-522-8463 (legal, regulatory and compliance issues;
ship innovations)

* Terry Dale, President & CEO, Cruise Lines International Association, NYC
212-921-4711 x701 (marketing to passengers with special needs)

* William Gibbons, Director, Passenger Shipping Association; and Marketing
Director, European Cruise Council, London
011-44-207-436-2449 (marketing to passengers with special needs, Europe)

* Andy Vladimir, Professor Emeritus, Florida International University,
Hospitality & Tourism Management; and co-author of Selling the Sea,
Coconut Grove, FL 305-667-7612 (Author and specialist on accessible

* Susan D. Tanzman, President, Martin’s Travel & Tours, Los Angeles, CA
310-390-7685 (Travel agent specialist on disabled/accessible travel)
* Susan not available for comment on February 28, 2005

* Robin Conrad, Senior Vice President, National Chamber Litigation Center,
Washington, D.C.
202-463-5337 (legal, regulatory and compliance issues)

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